Article 40 of the TRIPS ON Agreement recognizes that certain practices or licensing conditions related to intellectual property rights that limit competition can have negative effects on trade and impede the transfer and dissemination of technology (paragraph 1). Member States may adopt appropriate measures under the other provisions of the agreement to prevent or control abusive and anti-competitive intellectual property licensing practices (paragraph 2). The agreement provides a mechanism by which a country intending to take action against such practices involving companies from another Member State will consult with that other Member State and exchange non-confidential information relevant to the public for the issue in question and other information available to that member, subject to domestic law and the conclusion of satisfactory agreements for both parties regarding compliance with its confidentiality by the member. applicant member (paragraph 3). Similarly, a country whose companies in another Member State are subject to such measures may engage in consultations with that member (point 4). In addition to the basic intellectual property standards set out in the TRIPS agreement, many nations have committed to bilateral agreements to adopt a higher level of protection. This collection of standards, known as TRIPS or TRIPS-Plus, can take many forms.  One of the general objectives of these agreements is that the TRIPS ON agreement is a minimum model agreement allowing members to more broadly protect the protection of intellectual property on demand. Members are free to determine the appropriate method of transposing the provisions of the agreement into their own legal and practical order. A dispute arises when a member government believes that another member government is violating a WTO agreement. The complaining member must submit a “request for consultation” defining the agreements he considers to be in the state. A dispute can and will often be placed under more than one agreement. The list below outlines the agreements mentioned in the consultation request.
Article 13 requires members to limit restrictions or derogations from exclusive rights to specific cases that do not object to the normal operation of the work and which do not disproportionately affect the legitimate interests of the right holder. This is a horizontal provision that applies to all restrictions and exceptions allowed by the provisions of the Bern Agreement and the appendix of the ON TRIPS agreement. The application of these restrictions is also permitted under the TRIPS agreement, but the provision specifies that they must be applied in a manner that does not harm the legitimate interests of the right holder.