What is surprising about the transnational implementation of TRIPS is that most countries have not actually used the potential flexibilities contained in the agreement. For example, Carolyn Deere points out that by the end of 2007, fewer than 15 governments had actually granted a compulsory licence, while the majority of signatories in member developing countries had options for the use of a third-party patented invention for research, science or experimentation at the end of 2007.  In the 1980s, Pfizer Pharmaceutical Group was an all-global company with 21 production sites in developing countries and 4 to 6 research and development laboratories (research and development laboratories) outside the United States.  In the early 1980s, Pfizer executives were part of an elite group of business leaders who were beginning to work on the admission of intellectual property into the GATT. Top collaborators, including Edmund Pratt (President of Pfizer 1972-1992 and CEO 1972-1991) were open to a “trade-based approach to spiritual life.” Pratt, for example, began making speeches to economic organizations such as the National Foreign Trade Council and the Business Round Table, in which he presented a symbiotic vision of trade, the spirit of economics and investment.  At the same time as the developed “West” has experienced a worrying economic decline, the new post-colonial developing countries have become increasingly internationally confident about their trade and intellectual property rights, strongly arguing for trade conditions that reflect their development needs, and have even called for the creation of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) that better meets their needs. Among the successes of developing countries in this regard was a 1970 UN General Assembly resolution on an “international strategy for the Second Decade of United Nations Development.” These include requesting a technology transfer program and a “review of international patent conventions.”  In 1974, the United Nations also reached an agreement with WIPO, in which it instructed WIPO to “promote creative intellectual activities and facilitate the transfer of industrial property technologies to developing countries in order to accelerate economic, social and cultural development.” Developing countries continued their demands at the 1980-84 WIPO conference and called for a review of the patent conditions of the Paris Convention to give them “preferential treatment.”  The United States has begun to negotiate bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements with the following countries and blocs: the provisions of ACTA provide for the imposition of heavier penalties for copyright infringement in all types of intellectual property, such as the requirement for states to criminalize commercial activities with an “indirect economic or commercial advantage” as piracy or counterfeiting and to extend criminal liability to “third parties”. , including, possibly, Internet service providers (Internet service providers, ISPs).