Employers and workers should enter into negotiations on points of divergence or excessive requirements to reach an agreement. The union should not make inappropriate demands or make requirements. Any refusal to negotiate on both sides should be considered an unfair practice. Rigid attitudes are inconsiderate in a tariff system.  Eurofound (2015), collective bargaining in Europe in the 21st century, European Union Publications Office, Luxembourg.  Traxler, F. (2003), Coordinated Negotiations: an inventory of conditions, practices and achievements. The overall impact of collective bargaining on economic performance depends in large part on the specifics of the national system, how they interact with other key parameters of labour market institutions, such as employment protection or minimum wage legislation, but also on prevailing macroeconomic and labour market conditions and policies. Chapter 3 examines in detail the impact of collective bargaining on labour market performance. In Belgium (and Finland until 2015 and in other countries in the 1980s and 1990s), a more centralised and coordinated country, sectoral agreements play an important role, while leaving some room for lower-level agreements to change standards in general agreements. The particular feature of this system is the strong form of coordination imposed (or induced) by the state. The operating data of WERS and REPONSE indicate that workplace disputes are much more frequent in France and that the union presence is strongly and positively linked to a more frequent frequency of collective disputes in both countries (which is also confirmed by the subjective assessment of the social climate in the workplace by managers , as the establishment`s surveys show).
Overall, the recent analysis of Amossé and Forth (2016) confirms that, at least in the case of France and Great Britain, the presence of a trade union representative did contribute to the decline in turnover, as proposed by Hirschman (1972) and Freeman and Medoff (1984), but that collective disputes were also intensified. Answer: The ILO`s Freedom of Association Committee has concluded that wages, benefits and allowances can be the subject of collective bargaining.  In addition to more effective work inspections, Garnero (2018) offers a number of relatively free instruments to improve compliance with negotiated wage under-edcings and collective agreements in general. In countries with very high collective agreements, a reduction in the number of collective agreements and minimum wages would make the system more transparent for both employers and workers. In cases where this is not the case, it is essential to ensure that agreements are signed by representative trade unions and employers` organisations in order to prevent complacent, misrepresentative social partners or “yellow” trade unions (unions dominated by an employer or heavily influenced by employers) from compromising existing standards. Threshold-based representativeness criteria may be too rigid and unreasing when the stability of the collective bargaining system or mutual funds is at stake.